Definition

Pes cavus is an abnormally high arched foot. People with this condition place too much weight and stress on the ball and heel of the foot when standing or walking.

Causes

Pes cavus can be caused by an underlying disease, injury, or an inherited foot problem. Causes include:

    
  • Polio
  • Spinal cord tumor
  • Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease
  • Muscular dystrophy
  • Cerebral palsy
  • Friedreich ataxia
  • Clubfoot
  • Compartment syndrome
  • Crush injury
  • Structural abnormality
  • Inherited condition
  • Risk Factors

    Pes cavus has a tendency to run in families. If you have a family member with very high arches, then you may be at increased risk for developing pes cavus.

    Symptoms

    Symptoms associated with pes cavus include:

        
  • Foot pain
  • Stiff joints
  • Pain when standing and/or walking
  • Hammertoes
  • Claw toes
  • Calluses
  • Foot drop—the foot does not flex up
  • Instability
  • Claw Toes

    claw toe

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    Diagnosis

    You will be asked about your symptoms and medical history. A physical exam will be done. You will also be asked about your family medical history. Your foot will be examined closely. Your doctor may move it around to assess range of motion.

    You may be referred to a specialist. An orthopedist specializes in bones. Podiatrists specialize in feet. The condition may be caused by a nervous system condition. In this case your doctor may refer you to a neurologist.

    Images may need to be taken of your foot. This can be done with x-rays.

    Treatment

    Talk with your doctor about the best plan for you. Options include the following:

    Supportive Devices

    Changes may need to be made to provide foot support:

        
  • Orthotic devices are custom-made inserts placed into shoes that provide support, stability, and cushioning.
  • Soft-soled shoes, wider shoes, and high-topped shoes may help manage symptoms.
  • Braces may be advised to position the foot or to treat foot drop, which can interfere with normal walking.
  • Pads may be advised to cushion your feet to prevent corns and calluses from developing.
  • Surgery

    In some cases, medical treatment is not effective, so surgery is considered. The type of surgery depends on what is causing the pes cavus. One type of surgery, called an osteotomy removes part of the bone to correct the deformity.

    Prevention

    There are no known guidelines to prevent pes cavus from developing.