to view an animated version of this procedure.
Cholecystectomy is the surgical removal of the gallbladder. The gallbladder is near the liver. It stores bile that is made by the liver. Bile helps in the digestion of fatty foods. The gallbladder releases bile into a system of ducts that lead to the small intestine.
The open version of this surgery is done when a less invasive version called
cannot be done.
Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy vs. Open Cholecystectomy
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This surgery is used to remove a diseased or damaged gallbladder. The damage is typically caused by infection or inflammation.
This is often due to
which are crystals of bile that can form in the gallbladder. Sometimes, these get stuck in the ducts that bile normally flows through. This blockage in the ducts can damage the gallbladder and the liver.
Problems from the procedure are rare, but all procedures have some risk. Your doctor will review potential problems, like: Gallstones that have entered the abdominal cavityBleedingInfectionInjury to other nearby structures or organsReactions to general anesthesiaBlood clots
Some factors that may increase the risk of complications include: Increased agePregnancyObesitySmokingMalnutritionRecent or chronic illness
DiabetesHeart or lung problemsBleeding disordersAlcohol
or drug use disorder
Use of certain medications
Your doctor will probably do some or all of the following: Blood tests to evaluate liver functionAbdominal ultrasoundHepatobiliary iminodiacetic acid (HIDA) scan—an x-ray test that uses contrast material to highlight the liver, gallbladder, ducts, and small intestines and make them easier to seeElectrocardiogram (EKG)
chest x-ray—to make sure that the heart and lungs are healthy enough for surgery
MRI or CT scan to better view the gallbladder
Leading up to your procedure:
Talk to your doctor about your current medications. Certain medications may need to be stopped before the procedure, such as:
Arrange for a ride to and from the procedure. Also arrange for help at home when you return from the hospital.The night before, eat a light meal. Do not eat or drink anything after midnight.You may be given laxatives and/or an enema to clean out your intestines.You may be given antibiotics.You may be asked to shower the morning before surgery. You may be given a special soap to use.
An incision will be made in the upper right area of your abdomen. The gallbladder will be separated from the structures around it, including the liver, bile ducts, and arteries.
After the gallbladder is gone, contrast material may be squirted into the bile ducts. This will help show if there are gallstones in the ducts. The duct may be opened to remove any stones. While your abdomen is open, the other organs and structures will be examined. This will be done to make sure that you do not have any other problems. The incision will be closed with sutures or staples. It will then be covered with a bandage.
A tiny, flexible tube may be placed into the area where the gallbladder was removed. This tube will exit from your abdomen into a little bulb. This is to drain any fluids that may build during the first few days after surgery. The tube is usually removed within one week of your operation.
The gallbladder will be examined by a specialist. You will be taken to a room to recover. You will be monitored closely.
Anesthesia will prevent pain during surgery. Pain and discomfort after the procedure can be managed with medications.
In the recovery room, the staff will monitor you for problems. In addition: You may have a nasogastric tube, which is a tube that will go from your nose, down your throat, and into your stomach. The tube will help to drain fluids and stomach acid. You will not be able to eat or drink until this is removed and you are no longer nauseated. You will continue to receive fluids and sugar through an IV.When you are able to take things by mouth, you will be started on a liquid diet. Your diet will be progressed through soft foods to a regular diet.
Your bowels will work more slowly than usual. Chewing gum may help speed the process of your bowel function returning to normal.
During your stay, the hospital staff will take steps to reduce your chance of infection, such as: Washing their handsWearing gloves or masksKeeping your incisions covered
There are also steps you can take to reduce your chance of infection, such as: Washing your hands often and reminding your healthcare providers to do the sameReminding your healthcare providers to wear gloves or masksNot allowing others to touch your incision
Recovery takes about 4-6 weeks. You will have a special diet and physical activity plan to help with your recovery. Follow instructions on wound care to prevent infection. Your doctor may advise pain medications for discomfort. Your liver will take over the functions of the gallbladder. Some people notice that they have a little more trouble digesting fatty foods, particularly for the first month after surgery.
Contact your doctor if your recovery is not progressing as expected or you develop complications, such as: Signs of infection, including fever and chillsRedness, swelling, increasing pain, excessive bleeding, or discharge at the incision siteCough, shortness of breath, chest painIncreased abdominal painPain that you cannot control with the medications you have been givenBlood in the stoolPersistent nausea and/or vomitingBloating and gas that last for more than a monthPain and/or swelling in your feet, calves, or legsDark urine, light stools, or yellowing of the skin or eyes
If you think you have an emergency, call for medical help right away.
Cholecystectomy. American College of Surgeons website.
https://www.facs.org/~/media/files/education/patient%20ed/cholesys.ashx. Accessed May 28, 2013.
Cholecystectomy. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at:
http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated May 17, 2013. Accessed May 28, 2013.
Clayton ES, Connor S, Alexakis N, Leandros E. Meta-analysis of endoscopy and surgery versus surgery alone for common bile duct stones with the gallbladder
Br J Surg.
Dasari BV, Tan CJ, Gurusamy KS, et al. Surgical versus endoscopic treatment of bile duct stones.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev.
Gallbladder surgery: laparoscopic cholecystectomy. University of California at Davis website. Available at:
http://www.ucdmc.ucdavis.edu/surgery/specialties/gastro/gall.html. Accessed May 28, 2013.
Laparoscopic gallbladder removal (cholecystectomy) from SAGES. Society of American Gastrointestinal and Endoscopic Surgeons website. Available at:
http://www.sages.org/publications/patient-information/patient-information-for-laparoscopic-gallbladder-removal-cholecystectomy-from-sages. Accessed May 28, 2013.
3/23/2015 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed: Short V, Herbert G, Perry R, et al. Chewing gum for postoperative recovery of gastrointestinal function. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2015;2:CD006506.
Last reviewed March 2016 by Donald Buck, MD
Please be aware that this information is provided to supplement the care provided by your physician. It is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. CALL YOUR HEALTHCARE PROVIDER IMMEDIATELY IF YOU THINK YOU MAY HAVE A MEDICAL EMERGENCY. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition.
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