Colon polyps are growths on the lining of the colon or rectum. The colon and the rectum are parts of the large intestine, which are parts of the digestive system.
The 2 most common kinds of polyps are: Adenomatous polyps—which are precancerous and can become larger over time and may develop into cancerHyperplastic polyps—do not increase in size and only rarely become cancerous
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The cause of most colon polyps is unknown. It may be partly due to hereditary factors.
There are certain genetic conditions, such as
familial adenomatous polyposis
and Peutz–Jeghers syndrome, which cause many polyps to form.
Symptoms are often not present. Polyps are often found during an
or x-ray. If symptoms are present, they can include: Rectal bleedingDiarrhea,
constipation, and/or bloating that lasts over a period of time
Abdominal pain or cramping (rare)
The doctor will ask about your symptoms and medical history. A physical exam will be done. Tests may include: Stool testDigital rectal examFlexible sigmoidoscopy
Images of your internal body structures may be done with a
Depending on the size of the polyp, it may be removed. Large polyps are at high risk for becoming cancerous. They should be removed. Usually, polyps can be removed during
If the polyps are very large, you may need to have surgery to have them removed. Your doctor may send the tissue from the removed polyps to be tested for cancer.
It’s not clear how polyps can be prevented. However, the following guidelines can help you stay healthy and may help prevent not only polyps, but also colon cancer:
high fiber diet
with plenty of
fruits, vegetables, and
Reduce the amount of animal fat in your diet. This occurs in beef and other meat products, as well as full-fat dairy products.Exercise regularly.Maintain a healthy weight.
If you smoke, ask your doctor how to
See your doctor for regular screenings after the age of 50.More frequent screenings may be needed if polyps are found, or if you have a apersonal or family history.
Colon polyps. National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases website. Available at:http://www.niddk.nih.gov/health-information/health-topics/digestive-diseases/colon-polyps/Pages/overview.aspx. Updated April 30, 2012. Accessed July 12, 2013.
Polyps of the colon and rectum. American Society of Colon and Rectal Surgeons website. Available at:
https://www.fascrs.org/patients/disease-condition/polyps-colon-and-rectum. Accessed July 12, 2013.
Last reviewed June 2016 by Daus Mahnke, MD
Please be aware that this information is provided to supplement the care provided by your physician. It is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. CALL YOUR HEALTHCARE PROVIDER IMMEDIATELY IF YOU THINK YOU MAY HAVE A MEDICAL EMERGENCY. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition.
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