Definition

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is swelling and irritation of the intestines. This can cause a range of symptoms including abdominal discomfort and problems breaking down food. Two forms of IBD are:

    
  • Crohn's disease
  • Ulcerative colitis
  • IBD is a lifelong illness. The symptoms may be constant or occur during flare-ups. There is no cure for IBD but treatments can help control symptoms.

    Causes

    The exact cause of IBD is not known. Some believe IBD may be the result of:

        
  • Inherited genetics (may be a family history of IBD)
  • Reaction to a virus or bacteria that damages the colon and rectum
  • Compromised immune system or infection that affects the immune system
  • Risk Factors

    The following factors increase your chance of developing IBD:

        
  • Having a family member with IBD
  • Being Caucasian or of northern European ancestry
  • Being of Jewish ancestry (increases the risk of certain types of IBD)
  • Having problems with the immune system
  • Symptoms

    Symptoms depend on the type of IBD, but common symptoms may include:

        
  • Abdominal pain and cramping
  • Diarrhea
  • Weight loss and loss of appetite
  • Bleeding from the intestines
  • Ulcers in the intestines
  • Inflammation of the rectum
  • Draining around the rectum
  • Bloating or feeling of fullness
  • Gas
  • Bloody diarrhea
  • Abdominal sounds (such as gurgling)
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Joint pain
  • Diagnosis

    Your doctor will ask about your symptoms and medical history. A physical exam will be done. Your doctor may need images of the intestines to look for swelling and irritation or other conditions. Image may be taken with:

        
  • Upper GI endoscopy
  • Colonoscopy
  • Barium enema
  • X-ray
  • Capsule endoscopy
  • Your doctor may also look for signs of infection through:

        
  • Blood tests
  • Stool culture
  • Colonoscopy

    Colonoscope

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    Treatment

    Talk with your doctor about the best treatment plan for you. Treatment options include:

    Lifestyle Changes

    IBD symptoms may be reduced with simple dietary changes. In general, eat a diet that is:

        
  • Low in fat
  • Rich in fruits and vegetables
  • Consider reducing fiber and dairy products
  • Overall wellness may also play a role in reducing IBD flare-ups. Find ways to reduce stress. Get plenty of rest.

    Medications

    Most medicines for IBD focus on reducing the swelling and irritation. Medicines include:

        
  • Anti-inflammatory drugs
  • Corticosteroids
  • Immune system suppressors
  • Antibiotics to kill germs in the intestinal tract
  • Anti-diarrhea medicine
  • Laxatives
  • Pain relievers
  • Surgery

    Surgery is not helpful for all types of IBD. For people with very severe ulcerative colitis, a surgery to remove the colon may be done.

    Prevention

    Since the cause is not clear, there are no known prevention steps.