The information provided here is meant to give you a general idea about each of the medications listed below. Only the most general side effects are included, so ask your doctor if you need to take any special precautions. Use each of these medications as recommended by your doctor, or according to the instructions provided. If you have further questions about usage or side effects, contact your doctor.

The type of treatment you will have will depend on the stage of the cancer, the size of the tumor, your age, and overall condition. The main prescription drug therapies used to treat prostate cancer are hormonal therapies.

Hormonal Therapy

Prostate cells need male hormones, called androgens, to grow and work properly. The aim of hormonal therapy is to reduce the amount of male hormones in your body so that prostate cells are not stimulated to grow. The most effective hormonal therapy is to undergo surgery to remove the testes (orchiectomy). This is effective surgery, but it is irreversible. Often hormonal therapies are combined to achieve greater effects.

Different types of hormonal therapies include:

Luteinizing Hormone-releasing Hormone (LHRH) Analogs

Common names include:

  • Leuprolide
  • Goserelin
  • These medications decrease the production of the male hormone, testosterone, from the testicles. These medications are given by injection into a muscle every few months.

    Possible side effects include:

  • Erectile dysfunction
  • Hot flashes
  • Loss of sexual desire
  • Osteoporosis
  • Fatigue
  • Increased risk of heart disease and diabetes
  • Anti-androgens

    Common names include:

  • Flutamide
  • Bicalutamide
  • Nilutamide
  • Anti-androgens prevent your body from using androgens. Possible side effects include:

  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Diarrhea
  • Breast growth or tenderness—gynecomastia
  • Change in sexual ability or desire
  • Androgen Suppressants

    Common name: ketoconazole

    Ketoconazole blocks the production of androgens. It is considered a second-line hormonal treatment. It may be used when other medications are not working.

    Possible side effects include:

  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Liver problems
  • Itchy skin
  • Newer Hormonal Therapies


    Common name: abiraterone

    Abiraterone works by blocking an enzyme that is needed to make testosterone. The drug affects the ability of the testes and body tissue from making this male hormone.

    Possible side effects include:

  • Fatigue
  • Fluid build-up in the legs
  • Joint and muscle pain
  • High blood pressure
  • Bladder infection
  • Enzalutamide

    Common name: enzalutamide

    This medication has been approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for men that have late-stage prostate cancer that has not responded to other treatments. Enzalutamide, a type of anti-antigen, prevents your body from using androgens.

    Possible side effects include:

  • Weakness
  • Back pain
  • Diarrhea
  • Joint pain
  • Special Considerations

    If you are taking medications, follow these general guidelines:

  • Take the medication as directed. Do not change the amount or the schedule.
  • Ask what side effects could occur. Report them to your doctor.
  • Talk to your doctor before you stop taking any prescription medication.
  • Plan ahead for refills if you need them.
  • Do not share your prescription medication with anyone.
  • Medications can be dangerous when mixed. Talk to your doctor if you are taking more than one medication, including over-the-counter products and supplements.