This information is meant to give you a general idea about each of the medications listed below. Only the most general side effects are included. Ask your doctor if you need to take any safety measures. Use each of these medications as directed by your doctor or according to the instructions provided. If you have further questions about usage or side effects, contact your doctor.
Anxiolytics (anti-anxiety medications) and antidepressants can help ease the symptoms of panic disorder. They are often used along with counseling. Depending on the person, medication may be used for a short time or for a long period of time, medication helps relieve symptoms. It should not take the place of counseling (psychotherapy). Psychotherapy can address the root of the problem.
Common names include: CitalopramFluvoxamineParoxetineFluoxetineSertralineEscitalopram
Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) affect the concentration of the neurotransmitter serotonin. Serotonin plays a role in anxiety. Although they are considered antidepressants, SSRIs have been used effectively to treat panic and other anxiety disorders. Improvement is usually seen in 4-6 weeks after beginning treatment. SSRIs are not addictive. Do not take an SSRI if you have taken an MAOI in the last 2-5 weeks.
Possible side effects include: NauseaDiarrheaInsomniaLoss of appetite or weight lossWeight gainNervousnessLightheadedness
Sexual difficulties (ranging from decreased arousal to
and/or delayed time to orgasm)
Risk of severe mood and behavior changes, including suicidal thoughts in some patients (young adults may be at a higher risk for this side effect)
Common names include: LorazepamPrazepamFlurazepamClonazepamTriazolamChlordiazepoxideHalazepamTemazepamOxazepamClorazepateDiazepamAlprazolam
Benzodiazepines ease symptoms of panic disorder by improving the function of gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA). GABA is a neurotransmitter thought to be abnormal in people with anxiety disorders. These drugs produce a sedative effect. They also ease physical symptoms, such as muscle tension. They often cause drowsiness. The advantage of benzodiazepines is that they are fast acting. They are useful for treating acute
, panic, and
. When stopping the medication, you should slowly decrease it over a period of weeks or months under a doctor’s supervision.
These drugs can be habit-forming when used long-term or in excess. This may cause withdrawal symptoms such as “rebound panic,” anxiety, irritability, and insomnia when stopped. If you have had a problem with substance abuse (alcohol use disorder
drug addiction), talk to your doctor about whether or not you should use benzodiazepines.
Do not take benzodiazepines with alcohol or other drugs that cause drowsiness. Do not take if you must drive a vehicle or operate equipment. These drugs should not be taken with certain oral antifungal medications or by people with certain types of
Possible side effects include: DrowsinessLighheadedness, particularly in elderly personsConfusionReduced coordinationSlow reaction time
Common names include: DoxepinClomipramineNortriptylineAmitriptylineImipramineMaprotilineDesipramineTrimipramineProtriptyline
Tricyclic antidepressants regulate the neurotransmitters serotonin and/or noradrenalin in the brain. Tricyclic antidepressants are not addictive.
Possible side effects include: LightheadednessDry mouthConstipationDifficulty urinatingWeight gainLow blood pressureSexual difficultiesRisk of severe mood and behavior changes, including suicidal thoughts in some patients (young adults may be at a higher risk for this side effect)
Common brand names include: TrazodoneVenlafaxineNefazodone
Atypical antidepressants affect the concentration of the neurotransmitter serotonin. They can be effective in treating panic. Improvement is usually seen in 4-6 weeks after beginning treatment.
Possible side effects include: NauseaNervousnessReduced sex driveRisk of severe mood and behavior changes, including suicidal thoughts in some patients (young adults may be at a higher risk for this side effect)
Common names include: IsocarboxazidPhenelzineTranylcypromine
Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) are a type of antidepressant. They ease symptoms of panic disorder by preventing the breakdown of serotonin and noradrenaline. They are especially useful for people whose symptoms have not responded to other treatments. Improvement is usually seen in 2-6 weeks after beginning treatment. MAOIs are not addictive.
MAOIs can cause adverse reactions when combined with many other types of drugs, such as: Other types of MAOIsAntidepressantsSympathomimeticsSedativesNarcoticsAnestheticsAntihypertensive drugsDiureticsAntihistaminesBuspironeDexfenfluramineDextromethorphan
Ask your doctor and pharmacist for a complete list of what to avoid.
At minimum, a 2-5 week break is necessary between stopping MAOIs and starting another antidepressant. MAOIs can cause birth defects and should not be taken by pregnant women.
When taking MAOIs, you should not eat foods that have high tyramine content, such as: CheeseAlcoholPickled, marinated, smoked, cured, or fermented foodsOrgan meatsNuts and peanut butterFava beansOnionsAvocadosCanned figsChocolateCaffeineFoods containing monosodium glutamate (MSG)
Possible side effects include: Changes in blood pressure, including hypertensive crisisWeight gainReduced sexual responseInsomniaRisk of severe mood and behavior changes, including suicidal thoughts in some patients (young adults may be at a higher risk for this side effect)
A discussion with a specially trained mental health professional is advised if you do not respond to treatment with medications. A mental health professional can help explain the diagnosis and determine if another psychiatric disorder is present. They can also suggest psychotherapy and changes in medications.
If you are taking medications, follow these general guidelines: Take the medication as directed. Do not change the amount or the schedule. Ask what side effects could occur. Report them to your doctor.Talk to your doctor before you stop taking any prescription medication.Plan ahead for refills if you need them.Do not share your prescription medication with anyone.Medications can be dangerous when mixed. Talk to your doctor if you are taking more than one medication, including over-the-counter products and supplements.