The information provided here is meant to give you a general idea about each of the medications listed below. Only the most general side effects are included, so ask your doctor if you need to take any special precautions. Use each of these medications only as recommended by your doctor and according to the instructions provided. If you have further questions about usage or side effects, contact your doctor.
work in a variety of different ways. The primary strategy is to increase the amount of dopamine or to activate the dopamine receptor, as it is the neurotransmitter pathway that is decreased in people with Parkinson’s disease. Although most people respond to medications initially, the effects may wear off over time as the disease progresses. When a particular medication stops working, your doctor may have to increase the dose, switch medications, stop and then restart a medication, or add on another medication.
In addition, many people experience disabling side effects (specifically, rapid “wearing-off” of the drug and abnormal movements, called
dyskinesias) from long-term dopamine-replacement therapy, which requires a decrease in dose and possible substitution of another medication or other form of therapy.
Levodopa is the most effective treatment for symptoms. It is a precursor to dopamine and converted to dopamine once transported into the brain.
Common names include: DoparLarodopa
Common names include: Carbidopa/levodopaCarbidopa/levodopa controlled-release Carbidopa/levodopa/entacapone
Levodopa helps increase the amount of dopamine within the brain. This can help improve symptoms of Parkinson’s disease, particularly rigidity and slowness. Unfortunately, the body metabolizes (breaks down) this drug very quickly, so you’ll have to take another dose fairly often. As a result, you’ll often be given a medication that combines levodopa with carbidopa, a substance that slows the breakdown of levodopa. You’ll only have to take this medication every 4-6 hours.
If you’re taking levodopa alone, don’t take
supplements without your doctor’s knowledge since they can speed up the breakdown of levodopa. Because bananas, egg yolks, lima beans, meats, peanuts, and whole grain cereals all contain large amounts of vitamin B6, ask your doctor how much of these food items you should eat on a daily basis.
Some people notice less effect from levodopa and levodopa/carbidopa combinations over time. The drugs may seem less effective, or their benefits may stop even before it’s time for the next dose. If this happens, talk to your doctor about increasing the dosage or increasing how frequently you take the medication.
Don’t ever suddenly discontinue using these medications, unless your doctor advises it.
Possible side effects include: NauseaVomiting
Dry mouthNightmaresNervousnessAnxietyDecreased appetiteIncreased intestinal gasLow blood pressurePalpitationsConfusionAgitationPsychosis, paranoia, maniaHallucinations, delusionsNightmares, vivid dreams, night terrors
Stalevo adds entacapone, a COMT inhibitor (see
below), to the levodopa/carbidopa combination. Side effects are reported to be those described above, plus those listed below for entacapone.
Common names include: BromocriptineCabergolinePramipexoleRopiniroleApomorphineRotigotine patch
These drugs affect the brain in a way similar to dopamine. They may be given by themselves early in Parkinson’s disease, or along with other medications (like levodopa) later in the course of the disease. Dopamine agonists cause less motor fluctuations and dyskinesias due to the longer duration of action.
Some people develop hallucinations or confusion while taking dopamine agonists and have to stop taking the medication. Do not use alcohol while you are taking a dopamine agonist. You will have unpleasant and potentially dangerous symptoms, including nausea, vomiting, fast heart rate, blurry vision, chest pain, headache, and extreme weakness.
Possible side effects include: LightheadednessDrowsinessDry mouthNausea, vomitingConstipationHeadacheAnkle swellingSudden low blood pressure when you first stand up—which can result in fallingSudden sleep attacks—these attacks can be very dangerous if they occur while you’re drivingHallucinations, delusionsCompulsive gambling
Apomorphine is a short acting dopamine agonist given as an injection in advanced cases. The medication was approved by the FDA for wearing-off spells. These spells occur in people who have been receiving long-term dopamine replacement therapy. The side effects are similar to that of the dopamine agonists, but nausea and vomiting have been reported to occur more often.
has also been associated with the risk of serious heart damage. The dopamine agonist bromocriptine has rare, but significant, side effects (such as pericardial, pleural, and
pulmonary fibrosis). Talk to your doctor if you have been taking these medications and are concerned about potential side effects.
Common names include: SelegilineRasagiline
Selegiline and rasagiline are usually given along with levodopa or levodopa/carbidopa combinations. Both interfere with the breakdown of dopamine in the brain.
You may have a severe reaction if you take this medication along with the opioid painkiller,
If you are taking selegiline at higher-than-usual doses, you may have a sudden, dangerous spike in blood pressure if you eat or drink things that contain a substance called tyramine. Tyramine is found in: Aged cheesesBeer, wine, and other alcoholic beveragesSmoked or pickled meats, chicken, fish, and cheesesCaffeinated foods and beverages (colas, coffee, tea, chocolate)Nonprescription remedies for colds, allergies, sinuses, cough, asthma, hay fever, and appetite control
Call your doctor right away if you notice: Severe headacheStiff neckChest painAbnormally fast or slow heartbeatSevere nausea and vomitingIncreased sweating
Possible side effects include: Dry mouthLightheadednessSudden low blood pressure when you first stand up—which can lead to fallsDifficulty sleepingNausea, vomiting (mild)Visual hallucinationsAgitation
There are several medications that should not be taken while taking selegeline and rasasgiline. Some of these include: Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs), and tricyclic antidepressantsLienzolid, an antibioticCertain decongestants and stimulants, such as amphetamines, ephedrine, phylephrine, pseudoephedrineCyclobenzaprineDextromethorphan, a cough suppressantCertain opioid analgesics, such as methadone, tramadolOther monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors
Common names include: TolcaponeEntacapone
COMT inhibitors are taken with levodopa preparations. They help decrease the rate of breakdown of levodopa, so more is available to work in the brain.
These medications can cause severe liver problems, so your doctor will probably run regular tests to monitor your liver function.
Possible side effects include: Brownish-orange urine
diarrheaLightheadednessHallucinations and confusion, especially in the elderlyHeadachesDrowsiness
Common names include: TrihexyphenidylBenztropine
These medications can decrease tremor and stiffness and improve muscle control.
You’ll have less chance of stomach irritation if you take these medications with food. Don’t take an anticholinergic medication within the hour after you’ve taken medication for diarrhea; the diarrhea medication will interfere with the actions of the anticholinergic medication. Don’t use alcohol while you're taking anticholinergic medications. Check with your doctor before using any medications that make you drowsy.
Before you begin treatment with anticholinergic medications, get your eyes checked by an ophthalmologist.
Possible side effects include: DrowsinessLightheadednessSensitivity to bright lightsDry mouthUrinary retentionBlurred visionConstipationFast heartbeat, palpitationsMood changesMemory difficultiesConfusionHallucinations
Common names include: Amantadine
Amantadine can help reduce stiffness and tremor and improve muscle control. Sometimes this medication stops working after you’ve been taking it for a while. Your doctor may recommend that you take a break (a drug holiday) from the medication and then restart it. This may help the drug regain its effectiveness.
Don’t drink alcohol while you’re using amantadine. If you begin to feel
or suicidal, talk with your doctor right away.
Possible side effects include: Lightheadedness, especially when first rising, which may increase risk of fallingConfusionBlurry visionDifficulty concentratingDry mouthPurplish-red blotchy skin rashDepressionNightmaresInsomniaHallucinationsUrinary retention
Researchers are focusing on neuroprotective medications. These medications may be able treat the underlying problems causing Parkinson’s, not just the symptoms.
Common names include: Pimavanserin
Pimavanserin is an antipsychotic drug that is used to manage hallucinations and delusions in those with Parkinson's-related psychosis. It works by blocking certain serotonin receptors that cause psychotic symptoms. The drug is not recommended in people with kidney, liver, or heart problems.
Possible side effects include: NauseaSwelling in the lower extremitiesConfusion