A risk factor is something that increases your likelihood of getting a disease or condition. It is possible to develop
with or without the risk factors listed below. However, the more risk factors you have, the greater your likelihood of developing osteoporosis. If you have a number of risk factors, ask your doctor what you can do to reduce your risk.
Men have a higher bone density and lose calcium at a slower rate than women. However, after age 50, bone loss gradually increases. Risk factors for bone loss in men include:
In men, deficiencies of testosterone and, to a much minor extent, estrogen play a role in the development of osteoporosis. This may be related to: Advanced age
which lowers testosterone levels
Hypogonadism, a severe deficiency in the male sex hormone
The risk of osteoporosis increases with age. Bone loss increases, while bone building decreases.
Having a family history of osteoporosis, especially hip fracture, puts you at a higher risk. Genetic diseases, such as cystic fibrosis, glycogen storage diseases, or homocystinuria also play a role in higher osteoporosis risk.
Your risk of developing osteoporosis increases if you have a restrictive diet, such as not getting enough calories,
vitamin D. An excess of
in your diet, usually from colas, may increase your risk if your calcium and/or vitamin D intakes are low. Excessive
alcohol use, coffee, or tea may also increase your risk of osteoporosis.
Regular exercise, especially weight-bearing and resistance exercise, helps strengthen bones. Therefore, if you do not exercise on a regular basis, you may increase your risk of developing osteoporosis. Individuals who do not exercise regularly also tend to have weaker muscles and poorer balance, which can lead to falls and fractures.
impairs bone, muscle, and joint health. If you smoke, you have a higher risk of developing osteoporosis.
Small-boned women and underweight people of both sexes have an increased risk of osteoporosis.
The effect of sun on the skin is a primary source of vitamin D, which aids bone formation. If you get very little sun exposure and have a low dietary intake of vitamin D, you may be at increased risk of osteoporosis.
Caucasian, Asian, and Hispanic women are more likely to develop osteoporosis than those of other ethnic groups. Though most ethnic studies have focused on women, it is believed that men in these ethnic groups carry a parallel but lower risk.
The long-term use of certain medications increases your risk of osteoporosis. Examples include: CorticosteroidsMedications to suppress the immune systemChemotherapyGonadotropin-releasing hormoneAntidepressantsAntiseizure medicationsMedications containing aluminum, such as antacidsProton pump inhibitorsLong-term heparin therapyGlitazones, medications to treat diabetes
Talk to your doctor before stopping or reducing your medications.