A risk factor is something that increases your likelihood of getting a disease or condition.
It is possible to develop macular degeneration with or without the risk factors listed below. However, the more risk factors you have, the greater your likelihood of developing macular degeneration. If you have a number of risk factors, ask your doctor what you can do to reduce your risk.
Risk Factors Include:
Adult macular degeneration is more common in people over 50, and the risk increases with advancing age.
Adult macular degeneration is more common in women.
According to the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, adult macular degeneration is more common in people who are Caucasian.
Genetic factors appear to be very common in early-onset types of macular degeneration. Specific genetic causes for adult macular degeneration have not been identified. However, a positive family history may increase risk.
High blood pressure
The following factors all increase your risk of macular degeneration: SmokingHeavy alcohol useHigh cholesterolExcessive sunlight
According to the National Registry of Drug-Induced Ocular Side Effects, taking certain drugs may increase your risk of developing adult macular degeneration. If you are taking any of these drugs, talk with your doctor about your risk of macular degeneration.
These drugs include: AcetazolamideAluminum nicotinateBroxyquinolineDichlorphenamideEpinephrineEthoxzolamideGriseofulvinIodide and iodine solutions and compoundsIodochlorhydroxyquinIodoquinolIothalamate meglumine and/or sodiumIothalamic acidMethazolamideNiacinNiacinamideNicotinyl alcohol
The following drugs may be linked to adult macular degeneration, but there is no conclusive evidence at this time: AllopurinolBetaxololChymotrypsinDipivefrinDPEIndomethacinLevobunololNaproxenPhenylephrine
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD). National Eye Institute (NEI) website. Available at:
https://nei.nih.gov/health/maculardegen. Updated September 2015. Accessed November 28, 2016.
SanGiovanni JP, Chew EY, Clemons TE, et al. The relationship of dietary lipid intake and age-related macular degeneration in a case-control study: AREDS Report No 20.
What is macular degeneration?
American Macular Degeneration Foundation website. Available at:
https://www.macular.org/what-macular-degeneration. Accessed November 28, 2016.
Last reviewed November 2016 by Michael Woods, MD
Please be aware that this information is provided to supplement the care provided by your physician. It is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. CALL YOUR HEALTHCARE PROVIDER IMMEDIATELY IF YOU THINK YOU MAY HAVE A MEDICAL EMERGENCY. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition.
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