Pneumococcal disease is an infection caused by bacteria. It can lead to: PneumoniaBacteremia—infection of the bloodBacterial meningitis
is spread by person-to-person contact.
There are two types of pneumococcal vaccines: Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV)—recommended for infants and toddlers. The PCV13 vaccine protects against 13 types of pneumococcal bacteria.Pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV)—recommended for certain children and adults. The PCV23 vaccine protects against 23 types of pneumococcal bacteria.
The vaccines are made from inactivated bacteria. They are given by injection under the skin or into the muscle. The goal of getting a vaccine is that later, when you are exposed to the bacteria, you will not get sick from it.
The PCV is routinely given in four doses at 2, 4, 6, and 12-15 months.
If your child has not been vaccinated or missed a dose, talk to the doctor. Depending on your child's age, additional doses may be needed. Also, an additional dose may be needed if your child: Is less than five years old and was given PCV7, which is an earlier version of the vaccineHas a condition that increases the risk of severe disease
The PPSV is given to adults aged 65 and older.
PPSV is also given to anyone aged 2 to 64 who has certain conditions, such as: Heart or lung diseaseSickle cell diseaseDiabetesAlcoholismCirrhosisCerebrospinal fluid leaksCochlear implantsHodgkin's diseaseLymphoma or leukemiaKidney failureMultiple myelomaNephrotic syndromeHIV or AIDS
or other disease the creates a weak immune system
Damaged spleen or no spleenAn organ transplant
PPSV is also given to anyone aged 2 to 64 who is taking a drug or treatment that lowers the body's ability to resist infection, such as: Long-term steroidsCertain cancer drugsRadiation therapy
The vaccine should be given at least 2 weeks before cancer treatment begins.
PPSV should also be given to any adult aged 19 to 64 years old who: Is a smokerHas asthma
In some cases, a second dose of PPSV may be needed. For example, a second dose is recommended for people 65 and older who got their first dose before they turned 65 and it has been more than 5 years since that dose. A second dose is also recommended for people 2 through 64 who have: A damaged spleen or no spleenSickle cell diseaseHIV infection or AIDSCancer, leukemia, lymphoma, or multiple myelomaNephrotic syndromeAn organ or bone marrow transplantBeen taking medication that lowers immunity, such as chemotherapy or long-term steroids
When a second dose is given, it should be 5 years after the first dose.
Generally, all vaccines have a small risk of serious problems. Side effects of PCV include: Redness, tenderness, or swelling at the injection siteFeverDrowsinessLoss of appetiteIrritability
Acetaminophen is sometimes given to reduce pain and fever that may occur after getting a vaccine.
the medication at the time of the shot
may weaken the vaccine's effectiveness. Discuss the risks and benefits of taking acetaminophen with the doctor.
Half of the people who get the vaccine have mild side effects. However, developing the disease is much more likely to cause serious problems than getting the vaccine. Side effects may include: Redness or pain at the injection siteFeverMuscle achesSevere allergic reactions—rare
Children who should not receive the vaccine are those who: Have had a life-threatening allergic reaction to a previous dose of PCVHave had a severe allergy to one of the vaccine's partsAre very ill
You should not receive the PPSV if you: Had a life-threatening allergic reaction to a previous dose of PPSVHad a severe allergy to one of the vaccine's componentsAre very ill
You can prevent pneumococcal disease if you: Avoid close contact with people who have infections.Wash your hands regularly to reduce your risk of infection.
In the event of an outbreak, all people who are eligible for a vaccine should receive it.
WHERE CAN I GET MORE INFORMATION?
Baker CJ, Pickerling LK, et al; Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices. Recommended adult immunization schedule: United States, 2011.
Ann Intern Med. 1 Feb 2011. 154(3):168-173.
10/30/2009 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance
https://dynamed.ebscohost.com/about/about-us: Prymula R, Siegrist C, Chlibek R, et al. Effect of prophylactic paracetamol administration at time of vaccination on febrile reactions and antibody responses in children: two open-label, randomised controlled trials.
9/17/2010 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance
https://dynamed.ebscohost.com/about/about-us: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Updated recommendations for prevention of invasive pneumococcal disease among adults using the 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV23).
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep.
1/7/2011 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance
Nuorti J, Whitney C, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Prevention of pneumococcal disease among infants and children—use of 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine and 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2010;59(34):1102.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC); Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices.
Updated recommendations for prevention of invasive pneumococcal disease among adults using the 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV23).
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC); Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices. Licensure of a 13-Valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) and recommendations for use among children.
MMWR Recomm Rep. 2010;59(RR-11):1.
Last reviewed December 2012 by Brian Randall, MD
Please be aware that this information is provided to supplement the care provided by your physician. It is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. CALL YOUR HEALTHCARE PROVIDER IMMEDIATELY IF YOU THINK YOU MAY HAVE A MEDICAL EMERGENCY. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition.
Copyright © EBSCO Publishing. All rights reserved.