A skin biopsy is a procedure where a small piece of abnormal skin is removed for testing. There are 3 main types of skin biopsies: Shave biopsy—outer part of affected area is removedPunch biopsy—a small cylinder of skin is removed using a punch toolExcisional biopsy—an entire area of abnormal skin is removed
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A skin biopsy is used to test an area of abnormal skin. If possible, the entire area will be removed during the biopsy. A skin biopsy may be done to diagnose: Bacterial, viral, or fungal infections
Inflammatory skin disorders, such as
or benign skin growths
Skin biopsy may also be done to: Make sure a tumor was completely removed—by testing remaining skinMonitor the effect of a treatment
Problems from the procedure are rare, but all procedures have some risk. The doctor will review potential problems, like: BleedingInfectionPoor wound healingScarringNerve damage
Factors that may increase the risk of complications include: SmokingSuppressed immune systemBleeding disordersCirculatory problems
No special preparation is needed for this procedure.
Local anesthesia may be used. It will numb the area being treated.
The involved area will be prepared. The skin will be cleaned. Medication will be applied to the skin or injected to numb the area. The exact steps will depend on the type of biopsy: Shave biopsy—A thin slice of the skin will be removed. It is done with a special razor that shaves off a piece of skin.Punch biopsy—A special tool is used. The tip of the tool is pushed into your skin. As it is pushed down, the tool will be rotated into the skin. A circular sample of skin will then be cut free. This biopsy provides a sample from all of the layers of the skin. Stitches may be needed to close the hole.Excision biopsy—The entire area of abnormal skin will be removed with a scalpel. This biopsy will make a larger and deeper hole in the skin. Stitches will be placed to close the hole left in the skin.
After the procedure, a clean dressing will be placed over the area.
There may be some pain and discomfort after the procedure. Medication may be advised to reduce discomfort. .
Keep the biopsy area clean and dry. Keep it covered with a sterile bandage for 1-2 days. Stitches will be left in the skin for 3-14 days, depending on where they are located. The area will need to be cleaned to prevent infection. Do not get the area wet unless the doctor says it is okay to do so.
After arriving home, contact the doctor if any of the following occur: Signs of infection, including fever and chillsRedness, swelling, increasing pain, excessive bleeding, or discharge from the incision sitePain that you cannot control with the medications you were givenNew or unexpected symptoms
If you think you have an emergency, call for emergency medical services right away.
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http://kidshealth.org/en/teens/skin-biopsy.html. Updated July 2012. Accessed February 25, 2015.
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http://www.dermnetnz.org/procedures/biopsy.html. Updated December 13, 2014. Accessed February 25, 2015.
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Last reviewed March 2016 by James Cornell, MD
Please be aware that this information is provided to supplement the care provided by your physician. It is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. CALL YOUR HEALTHCARE PROVIDER IMMEDIATELY IF YOU THINK YOU MAY HAVE A MEDICAL EMERGENCY. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition.
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