to view an animated version of this procedure.
Hysterectomy is the surgical term for the removal of the uterus (womb). This results in the inability to become pregnant.
There are different types of surgeries, such as: Supracervical hysterectomy—removal of the uterus onlyTotal hysterectomy—removal of the uterus and cervix (the opening of the uterus leading to the vagina)Radical hysterectomy—removal of the uterus, ovaries, fallopian tubes, upper part of the vagina, and the pelvic lymph nodesSalpingo-oophorectomy
—removal of the ovaries and fallopian tubes (may be combined with any of the above procedures)
You may have a hysterectomy if your uterus is causing health problems that cannot be treated by other means. Some reasons a woman may have a hysterectomy are to:
Treat cancers (such as
uterine fibroidsTreat conditions (such as chronic pelvic pain, heavy bleeding)
Explore your options before having a hysterectomy. There are other treatments for many of these problems.
If you are planning to have hysterectomy, your doctor will review a list of possible complications, which may include: Reactions to anesthesiaPainInfectionBleedingFatigueInjured pelvic organs (bowel and/or bladder)Urinary incontinence
(problems controlling your urine)
Loss of ovarian function and early menopauseDepressionSexual dysfunction
Some factors that may increase the risk of complications include: ObesitySmokingHeart or lung diseaseDiabetesPrevious pelvic surgery or serious infectionUse of prescription and nonprescription drugs during the past month
Be sure to discuss the risks with your doctor before surgery.
Your doctor may do the following: Blood and urine testsX-ray
of abdomen and kidneys
—a test that uses sound waves to visualize organs in the abdomen
Dilation and curettage
(D&C)—surgical removal of tissue from the lining of the uterus (to check for cancer)
You should do the following:
Talk to your doctor about your medicines. You may be asked to stop taking some medicines up to one week before the procedure, such as:
Aspirin or other anti-inflammatory drugsBlood thinners, such as warfarin (Coumadin)clopidogrel (Plavix)If instructed, take enemas to clean out your intestines.Arrange for a ride home and for help at home.Eat a light meal the night before the surgery. Do not eat or drink anything after midnight.
is usually used for this surgery. Anesthesia blocks pain and keeps you asleep through the surgery. It is given through an IV in your hand or arm.
You may be given antibiotics just before surgery. There are two different methods that are described here.
The doctor will make a cut in your lower abdomen. This is done to expose the tissue and blood vessels that surround the uterus. The tissue will then be cut. The blood vessels will be tied off. The uterus will be removed. Next, the doctor will sew the tissue back together and close the skin with stitches or staples. If the cervix is also removed, you will also have stitches put in the back of your vagina.
The uterus is removed through the abdomen.
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This method will not involve any outside incisions. The doctor will stretch the vagina and keep it open with special tools. Next, the doctor will cut free the uterus and cervix. The connecting blood vessels will be tied off. The doctor will then remove the uterus and cervix through the vagina. Lastly, the doctor will close the top of the vagina with stitches.
The uterus is removed through the vagina.
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With each procedure, a vaginal "packing" (sterile gauze) is placed in the vagina. This will be removed after 1-2 days.
In the recovery room, you will have IV fluids and medicines.
You will not have pain during the surgery because of the anesthesia. During your recovery time, your doctor will give you pain medicine.
Abdominal hysterectomy: 3-5 daysVaginal hysterectomy: 1-2 days
Your doctor may choose to keep you longer if you have any complications.
While you are recovering at the hospital, you may receive the following care: On the first night, you may be instructed to sit up in bed and to walk a short distance.During the next morning, the IV will probably be removed if you are eating and drinking well.You may need to wear special stockings or boots to help prevent blood clots.To help you urinate, you may have a Foley catheter in your bladder.
During the first few days, you may have pain, bloating, vaginal bleeding, and vaginal discharge.
When you return home, do the following to help ensure a smooth recovery:
Follow your doctor's
Take proper care of the incision site. This will help to prevent an infection.Ask your doctor about when it is safe to shower, bathe, or soak in water.During the first two weeks, rest and avoid lifting.Slowly increase your activities. Begin with light chores and short walks. Depending on your job, you may be able to return to work.Check with your doctor to see when it is safe to drive again.
To promote healing, eat a diet rich in
fruits and vegetables
. Ask your doctor if you need to take
Try to avoid
high-fiber foodsDrinking plenty of waterUsing stool softeners if needed
Ask your doctor when you can use tampons. Also ask about
Wait six weeks before resuming sexual activity.
If you still have a cervix, you will still need regular
Recovery from open abdominal hysterectomy usually takes 6-8 weeks.
After you leave the hospital, call your doctor if any of the following occur: Signs of infection, including fever and chillsRedness, swelling, increasing pain, excessive bleeding, leakage, or any discharge from the incision siteIncision opens upNausea and/or vomiting that you cannot control with the medicines you were given or that last longer than two daysDizziness or faintingCough, shortness of breath, or chest painHeavy bleedingPain that you cannot control with the medicines you have been givenPain, burning, urgency or frequency of urination, or persistent blood in the urineSwelling, redness, or pain in your leg
In case of an emergency, call for medical help right away.
Hysterectomy. New York State, Department of Health website. Available at:
http://www.womenshealth.gov/publications/our-publications/fact-sheet/hysterectomy.html. Updated January 2010. Accessed August 25, 2012.
Hysterectomy: frequently asked questions.
Women's Health.gov website. Available at:
http://www.womenshealth.gov. Updated December 15, 2009. Accessed August 25, 2012.
Women's reproductive health: hysterectomy. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. Available at:
http://www.cdc.gov/reproductivehealth/WomensRH/Hysterectomy.htm.Updated May 7, 2009. Accessed August 25, 2012.
Last reviewed December 2013 by Andrea Chisholm, MD
Please be aware that this information is provided to supplement the care provided by your physician. It is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. CALL YOUR HEALTHCARE PROVIDER IMMEDIATELY IF YOU THINK YOU MAY HAVE A MEDICAL EMERGENCY. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition.
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