Addison's disease is a rare disorder of the adrenal glands. With Addison's, the adrenal glands do not produce enough of the hormones cortisol and aldosterone.
Addison's occurs because of damage to the cortex.
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Factors that increase your chance of getting Addison's disease include:
Having the following autoimmune diseases:
Type I diabetes
hypothyroidismMyasthenia gravisStressAnticoagulant medicationsAbdominal injuryFamily members with autoimmune-caused Addison's disease
Long-term steroid medication treatment, followed by:
Severe stressInfectionSurgeryTraumaPrevious surgery on adrenal glandsHereditary disorders, such as Prader-Willi syndrome and congenital adrenal hyperplasia
Symptoms may include: Extreme weakness, fatigueWeight lossNausea or vomiting
or painDarkening of freckles, nipples, scars, skin creases, gums, mouth, nail beds, and vaginal lining
Emotional changes, especially
depressionCognitive impairment or confusionCraving salty foodsAbdominal painAnorexiaAmenorrhea
A severe complication of Addison's disease is the Addisonian or
. Adrenal crisis is a life threatening disorder, its symptoms include:
Severe abdominal, back, or leg painFaintingSevere low blood pressureSevere dehydrationSevere nausea, vomiting, and diarrheaLow blood sugarGeneralized muscle weakness
The doctor will ask about your symptoms and medical history. A physical exam will be done.
Your bodily fluids may be tested. This can be done with: Blood testsUrine testsACTH stimulation test
Your doctor may also need images of your bodily structures.
This can be done with: MRI scanCT scan
Symptoms of Addison's disease can be controlled with medications. These drugs replace the missing hormones. Medication needs to be taken for the rest of your life. They may need to be increased during times of stress.
Immediate treatment of adrenal crisis includes: Self-injection of dexamethasoneHydrocortisone by IVNormal saline by IV
Surgery may also be needed for adrenal tumors or brain tumors causing the disease.
Regular blood tests are needed to monitor your response to medicine. Wear a medical alert bracelet that states adrenal insufficiency or Addison's disease. This will let others know of your condition if you are unable to communicate.
There are no guidelines for preventing Addison's disease. If you think you are at risk, talk to your doctor.
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Last reviewed June 2013 by Kim Carmichael, MD; Michael Woods, MD
Please be aware that this information is provided to supplement the care provided by your physician. It is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. CALL YOUR HEALTHCARE PROVIDER IMMEDIATELY IF YOU THINK YOU MAY HAVE A MEDICAL EMERGENCY. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition.
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