A coccyx fracture is a broken tailbone. The coccyx is the lowest part of the backbone or spine. It is small and shaped like a triangle. The bone curves gently from the end of the spine into the pelvis.
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Coccyx fracture is caused by trauma. Trauma may be caused by: FallsChildbirth, which may result in a newborn breaking the mother's coccyx
Fractures may may also occur during straining or friction, such as with rowing or bike riding.
Coccyx fractures are more common in women. Other risk factors that may increase your chance of a coccyx fracture include: Advancing ageOsteoporosis
Certain diseases or conditions that result in bone or mineral loss, such as abnormal or
menstrual cycles, or post-
menopauseDecreased muscle massCertain congenital bone conditionsParticipating in certain activities, such as skating or contact sports that may lead to falls in a seated positionViolence
A coccyx fracture may cause: Pain that increases with sitting or getting up from a chairPain that increases during a bowel movementTenderness over the tailbone
The doctor will ask about your symptoms and how the injury occurred. A physical exam will be done. The exam may include a rectal exam. If the coccyx is fractured, your doctor may feel abnormal movement of the coccyx. You will experience pain.
may or may not be needed.
The goal is to manage pain until the bone can heal. The location of the coccyx and the number of muscles attached to it makes it difficult to prevent it from moving while it is healing. Generally, pain will go away on its own.
The area may remain painful for a long period of time, even after the fracture has healed. You may be advised to stay in bed for a day or two, or move only as comfort allows.
Medications may be given to help manage pain. These include: Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medications (NSAIDs), such as ibuprofenAnalgesics, such as acetaminophenPrescription medicationsLocal anesthetic injectionsRarely, local steroid injections
You may also need stool softeners to help prevent
or pain during bowel movements.
In addition to medications, home care is important for your recovery.
Some pain medications may cause constipation. To help prevent this drink plenty of fluids throughout the day, and eat a diet rich in fruits, vegetables, and whole grains.
Sitting can be uncomfortable after a coccyx fracture. Some suggestions to help manage discomfort include: Massage the tailbone area in a circular motion. Use a styrofoam cup filled with ice. Do this for 15-20 minutes at at time.Sitz baths can help relieve muscle spasms. A sitz bath involves soaking the anal area in warm water for 10-20 minutes.Sit on an air cushion or doughnut pad.Alternate between sitting on one side of the buttock or the other.Avoid sitting on soft surfaces. Sinking into a soft chair sometimes increases the pressure on the coccyx.Slouch to move your weight forward and off the coccyx. (This only helps until you are well enough to sit properly again.)Sit on a large book, with the area of the coccyx hanging off the posterior portion of the book.
Surgery for a painful coccyx fracture is rare and not very successful. If pain continues and causes disability, a coccygectomy might be recommended. During this procedure, the doctor removes the coccyx.
If you are diagnosed with a coccyx fracture, follow your doctor's
To help reduce your chance of a coccyx fracture, take these steps: Do not put yourself at risk for trauma to the bone.Build strong muscles to prevent falls.Wear proper padding and safety equipment when participating in sports or activities.
To help reduce falling hazards at work and home, take these steps: Clean spills and slippery areas right awayRemove tripping hazards such as loose cords, rugs, and clutterUse non-slip mats in the bathtub and showerInstall grab bars next to the toilet and in the shower or tubPut in handrails on both sides of stairwaysWalk only in well-lit rooms, stairs, and hallsKeep flashlights on hand in case of a power outage
Last reviewed September 2013 by Michael Woods, MD
Please be aware that this information is provided to supplement the care provided by your physician. It is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. CALL YOUR HEALTHCARE PROVIDER IMMEDIATELY IF YOU THINK YOU MAY HAVE A MEDICAL EMERGENCY. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition.
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