Definition

Dysthymia is a mild-to-moderate depression that may go away during periods of normal mood that last up to two months.

Causes

The cause of dysthymia is not known. A chemical in the brain called serotonin may play a role.

Brainstem—Location of Serotonin Production

Brainstem and brain

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Risk Factors

Dysthymia is more common in women than in men. Factors that may increase your chance of developing dysthymia include:

    
  • Family history of major depression or dysthymia
  • Chronic mental or physical illness
  • Chronic stress
  • Environmental factors
  • People who have dysthymia may also experience episodes of major depression.

    Symptoms

    Dysthymia may be difficult to differentiate from depression due to many overlapping symptoms, which may include:

        
  • Feelings of sadness and/or hopelessness
  • Poor appetite or overeating
  • Trouble concentrating
  • Difficulty sleeping or sleeping too much
  • Fatigue
  • Low self-esteem
  • Difficulty functioning at work and school
  • Diagnosis

    You will be asked about your symptoms and medical history. A physical and psychological exam will be given.

    Your doctor may refer you to a specialist for further evaluation. Tests may be done to look for medical causes like thyroid problems or anemia.

    Treatment

    Talk with your doctor about the best treatment plan for you. Treatment may include one or more of the following:

    Antidepressant Medications

    Antidepressant medications may help to manage symptoms. Antidepressants take a few weeks to begin working. Take them as directed by your doctor.

    Psychotherapy

    Therapy can help change unhealthy thought patterns. Psychotherapy may include:

        
  • Cognitive behavioral therapy
  • Counseling
  • Family therapy
  • Interpersonal therapy
  • Lifestyle Modifications

    In addition to medications and therapy, the following lifestyle modifications may help you feel better:

        
  • Participate in enjoyable activities.
  • Eat a healthful diet.
  • Avoid illegal drugs and alcohol.
  • Begin a safe exercise program with the advice of your doctor.
  • Have a regular sleep schedule.
  • Prevention

    There are no guidelines for preventing dysthymia.