Galactorrhea is a discharge of milk-like substance from the breast that is not associated with breastfeeding after pregnancy. This condition mainly occurs in women. It does occur in men, but much less commonly. The milky white discharge can come from one or both breasts, and the breast may leak fluid with or without stimulation.
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Galactorrhea has many causes, though sometimes the cause is unknown. Tumors of the pituitary gland, called pituitary adenomas or prolactinomas, can cause galactorrhea. The pituitary is a small gland attached to the brain. Pituitary tumors are usually not cancerous. They can cause galactorrhea when they produce excess prolactin, a hormone that stimulates milk production.
Other causes of galactorrhea include: Hormonal imbalance
Some medications, such as:
Stopping or starting to take birth control pills or other hormonesCertain blood pressure drugsCertain psychiatric medicationsAnti-nausea drugsSome antigastroesophageal reflux medicationsSome pain killers
Certain herbs, such as :
NettleFennelBlessed thistleAniseFenugreek seedIllicit drugs, such as marijuana and opioidsSexual stimulation of the breastCertain diseases, such as
underactive or overactive thyroid, and chronic kidney failure, or liver diseaseChronic emotional stressHypothalamic tumors or disease
Chest wall conditions, such as:
ShinglesTraumaBurnsSurgical scarsTumors of chest wallIn newborns, high levels of circulating estrogen may result in enlarged breast tissue and secretion of milk
Galactorrhea is more common in women. Other factors that may increase your chance of galactorrhea include: StressWearing clothing that irritates the nippleFrequent breast self-exam or frequent breast stimulation
The primary symptom is a milky discharge from the nipple that is not associated with breast-feeding. The discharge can come from one or both breasts. Other symptoms that can occur along with the discharge include: Abnormal or absent menstruationHeat or cold intoleranceDisordered appetite, increase or decrease in weightIncreased thirst or urinationLoss of sex driveBloody or foul-smelling dischargeHeadachesAcne or abnormal hair growthVisual difficultiesImpotence in men
The doctor will ask about your symptoms and medical history. A physical exam will be done. Tests may include: A sample of the breast discharge to look at under a microscopeBlood tests to check hormone levelsPregnancy test
Imaging tests to check for a pituitary gland tumor in the brain:
If the discharge is not milky or contains blood, then this is not galactorrhea. Other tests must be done to check for
or other disorders.
Treatment depends on the cause. In some mild cases, no medical treatment is necessary, and the condition will go away on its own. In these cases, breast binders that prevent stimulation of the nipples may be effective. If medications are identified as the potential cause, safe alternatives should be sought.
If an underlying cause for galactorrhea, such as a pituitary tumor, is found, this condition may be treated.
Tumors of the pituitary gland that cause galactorrhea are usually benign. Small tumors may be treated with a medication, such as a dopamine agonist. Larger tumors that do not respond to medication may be treated with the following: Surgery to remove the tumor and nearby tissuesRadiation therapy
to shrink tumors
Despite treatment, pituitary gland tumors often recur.
To reduce your risk of galactorrhea, take these steps: Avoid wearing clothing that irritates the breast.Avoid frequent breast self-exam; usually once a month is enough.Avoid excessive sexual stimulation of the breasts.Do not use illicit drugs.
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Last reviewed June 2013 by Andrea Chisholm; Brian Randall, MD
Please be aware that this information is provided to supplement the care provided by your physician. It is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. CALL YOUR HEALTHCARE PROVIDER IMMEDIATELY IF YOU THINK YOU MAY HAVE A MEDICAL EMERGENCY. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition.
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