Huntington's disease (HD) is an inherited disorder that affects the brain. HD causes slow, progressive degeneration of nerve cells in certain areas of the brain. Eventually, HD results in: Abnormal body movementsGradual deterioration or loss of intellectual abilitiesBehavior problems
A faulty gene on chromosome #4 causes HD. All people who inherit the faulty gene may eventually develop HD.
Having family members with HD increases your chance of developing HD. Each person whose parent has HD has a 50% chance of inheriting the disorder.
Symptoms most often develop between the ages of 30-50 years. Symptoms are mild at first and are often barely noticeable, but usually worsen over 15-20 years.
Abnormal body movements that worsen over time, may include: Sudden jerks or uncontrolled movements of the limbs or trunkFacial grimacingContinuous need to turn head and shift gazeWalking that is unsteady or dance-like
Gradual deterioration or loss of intellectual abilities may include: Difficulty with eating and swallowing, which may result in weight lossDifficulty dressing, sitting, and caring for oneselfGrunting or poor articulation of speech
Mental function and behavior problems may include: Trouble with attention and awarenessConfusion or disorientationLoss of memoryLoss of judgmentLoss of ability to think rationallyIrritability and moodinessDepression
AnxietySocial withdrawal or antisocial behaviorIrresponsible behaviorPersonality changesPsychosis—a severe emotional and behavioral disorder that often interferes with a person's ability to relate to others and to function in daily lifeParanoia—a mental disorder that involves feelings of being watched, followed, or harmed by othersHallucinations—the perception of a thing or person that is not present
Ultimately, HD can: Cause the loss of the physical and mental ability to care for oneselfCause severe disability, making full-time or nursing home care necessary
Result in death, often due to a fall or
You will be asked about your symptoms and medical history (including family medical history). A physical exam will be done.
Your bodily fluids may be tested. This can be done with blood tests.
Images may be taken of your bodily structures. This can be done with: MRI scanCT scanSPECT scan
MRI Scan of the Brain
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There is a test that can determine if a person has inherited the gene for HD. This test may help to make the diagnosis of HD. It may also help to determine if a person has inherited the HD gene before symptoms appear. Genetic counseling is advised before taking this test to review risks and benefits.
There is no cure for HD. Treatment aims to help control symptoms.
Drugs can help control abnormal movements and emotional symptoms of HD. These include: TetrabenazineAntipsychoticsAntidepressants
Staying physically active helps people with HD to function better and longer. Often, physical and occupational therapy may be of some benefit.
There is no way to prevent the onset of HD if a person has inherited the gene for the disorder. If you have a family history of HD, talk with a genetic counselor.
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http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated August 11, 2014. Accessed September 30, 2014.
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NINDS Huntington's Disease information page.
National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke website. Available at:
http://www.ninds.nih.gov/disorders/huntington/huntington.htm. Updated April 16, 2014. Accessed September 30, 2014.
Paulsen JS, Hoth KF, et al. Critical periods of suicide risk in Huntington's disease.
Am J Psychiatry. 2005;163(4):725-731.
9/3/2014 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance. Available at:
http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed: Wippold FJ, Cornelius RS, et al. American College of Radiology (ACR) Appropriateness Criteria for dementia and movement disorders. Available at: http://www.acr.org/~/media/ACR/Documents/AppCriteria/Diagnostic/DementiaAndMovementDisorders.pdf. Updated 2014. Accessed September 30, 2014.
Last reviewed August 2014 by Rimas Lukas, MD
Please be aware that this information is provided to supplement the care provided by your physician. It is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. CALL YOUR HEALTHCARE PROVIDER IMMEDIATELY IF YOU THINK YOU MAY HAVE A MEDICAL EMERGENCY. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition.
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