Hydrocephalus is too much fluid in the brain. The fluid is called cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). It is a clear fluid that normally surrounds both the spinal cord and the brain. It is also in the ventricular system of the brain. With hydrocephalus the ventricles, or spaces, become enlarged.
You may be born with hydrocephalus, or it may develop after an injury or illness.
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Hydrocephalus occurs when: A blockage doesn't allow CSF to drain properlyAnother condition, such as bleeding, inflammation, or infection, makes the brain unable to resorb fluidAn excess of CSF is produced
These problems with the CSF may be caused by: Brain tumorsCancerInflammation in the CSFCysts in the brain
Malformations of the central nervous system, such as:
Dandy-Walker syndromeArnold-Chiari malformationSpina bifidaBrain injuries
Infections of the brain or meninges, such as
meningitisProblems with the blood vessels in the brain, such as aneurysms or arteriovenous malformationsBleeding into the brain or CSF space
Factors that may increase your chance of hydrocephalus include: Neural tube defects
Mother has infection during pregnancy, such as:
CytomegalovirusToxoplasmosisLymphocytic choriomeningitis virusChickenpoxMumpsBrain infectionsMalformations of the brainBrain injuriesBrain hemorrhage
Symptoms depend on the severity of the hydrocephalus. The extra CSF puts pressure on the brain. Symptoms may start out mild and become more severe as CSF pressure increases.
Symptoms may include: Headache, which may often be worse when lying down, upon first awakening in the morning, or with strainingNausea and vomitingProblems with balanceDifficulty walkingPoor coordination
Difficulty controlling urination
Personality changesConfusionMemory problems
Loss of consciousnessDeath
In babies, symptoms may include: Large head circumferenceBulging fontanelle on the headSlow developmentNo longer able to do activities they once could do
The doctor will ask about your symptoms and medical history. A physical exam will be done.
Tests to examine the internal structure of the brain may include: CT scanMRI scanUltrasound
in children up to 15-18 months old with open anterior fontanelles
Talk with your doctor about the best treatment plan for you. Options include: Ventriculoperitoneal shunt allows excess CSF to drain into another area, usually the abdomen.
Sometimes a temporary extraventricular drain (EVD) is placed.Third ventriculostomy allows CSF to flow out of the area where it is building up by creating a hole in an area of the brain.Removal of the obstruction of CSF flow.Medication to decrease the production of CSF or to reduce swelling.Lumbar puncture
to remove excess CSF.
People who have increased risk for hydrocephalus should be carefully monitored. Immediate treatment might prevent long-term complications.
There are no current guidelines to prevent hydrocephalus, but you can decrease your risk of developing it. In general: Take folate before pregnancy to reduce the chances of neural tube defects and myelomeningocele (a type of spina bifida).Get regular prenatal care.
Keep your child’s
up to date.Protect yourself or your child from head injuries.
To prevent certain infections in the mother during pregnancy, take these steps: Talk with your doctor about updating your vaccines.Carefully cook meat and vegetables.Correctly clean contaminated knives and cutting surfaces.Avoid handling cat litter, or wear gloves when cleaning the litter box.Avoid rodent contact.
Hydrocephalus fact sheet. National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke website. Available at:
http://www.ninds.nih.gov/disorders/hydrocephalus/detail_hydrocephalus.htm. Updated April 16, 2014. Accessed September 30, 2014.
Last reviewed August 2015 by Rimas Lukas, MD
Please be aware that this information is provided to supplement the care provided by your physician. It is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. CALL YOUR HEALTHCARE PROVIDER IMMEDIATELY IF YOU THINK YOU MAY HAVE A MEDICAL EMERGENCY. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition.
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