The oak tree, respected for millennia as a source of strong, dense wood, also has a considerable tradition of medicinal use. The astringent, tannin-rich bark of the oak tree has been recommended for such diverse conditions as internal hemorrhage, diarrhea, dysentery, cancer, and pneumonia.
Germany’s Commission E
recommends oak bark internally for treatment of
and topically for
. However, there is no meaningful scientific evidence that oak bark offers any therapeutic benefit in these or any other conditions. Only
, placebo-controlled studies can prove a treatment effective, and none have been performed on oak bark. (For more information on why such studies are essential, see
Why Does This Database Rely on Double-blind Studies?)
Oak bark contains numerous substances in the tannin family, especially ellagitannin,
along with potentially active substances in the saponin family.
Tannins are thought to have an astringent effect, meaning that they reduce tissue swelling and stop bleeding, and they are traditionally thought to be useful for diarrhea. However, oak bark has never been studied as a treatment for diarrhea. Saponins are often said to act as expectorants, enhancing the ability to cough up phlegm. Again, however, there is no direct evidence that oak bark is useful for coughs or related conditions.
Very weak evidence (too weak to be relied upon at all) hints that oak bark may have value for
, possibly reducing pain and slowing stone growth.
indicate that oak bark solutions applied topically might have activity against various microorganisms, including staphylococcus,
and might also exert
However, it is a long way from such studies to actual evidence of clinical benefit.
A typical oral dose of oak bark is 1 gram three times daily.
For application as a treatment for eczema, an oak bark tea is made by boiling 1–2 tablespoons of the bark for 20 minutes in 2 cups of water, and this is applied to the rash three to five times daily. Oak tinctures and extracts should be used according to label instructions.
Although comprehensive safety testing has not been performed, use of oak bark is not generally associated with any side effects other than the occasional digestive upset or allergic reaction.
Safety in young children, pregnant or nursing women, or people with severe liver or kidney disease has not been established.
Konig M, Scholz E, Hartmann R, et al. Ellagitannins and complex tannins from
J Nat Prod
Arramon G, Saucier C, Colombani D, et al. Identification of triterpene saponins in
Liebl. Heartwood by LC-ESI/MS and NMR.
Mandana Rodriguez A, Gausa Rull P. Therapeutic effects of
extract in urolithiasis.
Arch Esp Urol
Voravuthikunchai S, Lortheeranuwat A, Jeeju W, et al. Effective medicinal plants against enterohaemorrhagic
Gulluce M, Adiguzel A, Ogutcu H, et al. Antimicrobial effects of
Voravuthikunchai SP, Kitpipit L. Activity of medicinal plant extracts against hospital isolates of methicillin-resistant
Clin Microbiol Infect
Cerda B, Tomas-Barberan FA, Espin JC. Metabolism of antioxidant and chemopreventive ellagitannins from strawberries, raspberries, walnuts, and oak-aged wine in humans: identification of biomarkers and individual variability.
J Agric Food Chem
Blumenthal M, Busse WR, Goldberg A, et al. (eds).
The Complete Commission E Monographs: TherapeuticGuide to Herbal Medicines
. Boston, MA: Integrative Medicine Communications; 1998:175–6.
Last reviewed September 2014 by EBSCO CAM Review Board
Please be aware that this information is provided to supplement the care provided by your physician. It is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. CALL YOUR HEALTHCARE PROVIDER IMMEDIATELY IF YOU THINK YOU MAY HAVE A MEDICAL EMERGENCY. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition.
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