The mitral valve is on the left side of the heart. It allows blood to flow from the left upper chamber into the left lower chamber. When the valve is not working well, it may need to be replaced.
Healthy heart valves allow blood to flow one way. Diseased valves either leak and cause backflow, or narrow and restrict blood flow. The condition can be life threatening. Sometimes the valve can be repaired. Other times, it must be replaced.
, other infections, defects at birth, and wear and tear are the most common causes of mitral valve problems.
Problems from the procedure are rare, but all procedures have some risk. Your doctor will review potential problems, like: BleedingInfectionDamage to the heart or other organsReaction to anesthesia
Factors that may increase your risk of complications include: SmokingDrinkingChronic diseases, such as diabetes or obesity
Your doctor will evaluate both your general health and the condition of your heart and circulation. Some tests may include an
Talk to your doctor about medications, herbs, or supplements you are taking. You may be asked to stop taking some medications up to one week before the procedure
Do not eat or drink anything the night before your procedure.
An incision will be made along the length of your breast bone. The breast bone will be split lengthwise to expose your heart. You will then be put on a heart-lung machine. This machine takes over the work of your heart so that the doctor can stop your heart.
Your heart will be opened. A substitute valve will be sewn into place. This valve may be mechanical (metal and plastic), such as a St. Jude valve, or it may be made of tissue. Tissue valves most often come from a pig or a cow. Tissue valves may also be supplied by a human donor or even manufactured from your own tissues. When the valve is in place, you will be taken off the heart-lung machine and your heart will be re-started. The incision will be closed.
Mitral Valve Replacement
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Newer techniques, including
are being developed. These procedures will be able to do the same surgery with smaller incisions.
You will be taken to a recovery room. Your blood pressure, pulse, and breathing will be monitored.
Anesthesia will prevent pain during surgery. Pain and discomfort after the procedure can be managed with medications.
The usual length of stay is 8-10 days. Your doctor may choose to keep you longer if complications arise.
You will probably spend 1-3 days in the intensive care unit (ICU) and several more days in a regular hospital room. During this time, your care team will: Observe you for any complicationsStabilize your heart functionInstruct you in home care and activities
During your stay, the hospital staff will take steps to reduce your chance of infection such as: Washing their handsWearing gloves or masksKeeping your incisions covered
There are also steps you can take to reduce your chances of infection such as: Washing your hands often and reminding visitors and healthcare providers to do the sameReminding your healthcare providers to wear gloves or masksNot allowing others to touch your incisions
Once you get home: Take prescription medications, such as blood thinners or antibiotics.Antibiotics may be needed before dental procedures and during certain other procedures. This will help prevent a valve infection.You will slowly return to your usual activities over a 4-12 week period. You may also be asked to participate in a cardiac rehabilitation program.
Mechanical valves can last a lifetime. Tissue valves last 7-14 years and then must be replaced. If your valve is repaired and you have no complications, you will likely do well and be able to return to normal activities.
It is important for you to monitor your recovery after you leave the hospital. Alert your doctor to any problems right away. If any of the following occur, call your doctor: Signs of infection, including fever and chillsRedness, swelling, increasing pain, excessive bleeding, or any discharge from the incision siteConstipation
, bloody or tarry-color bowel movements, or stomach pain
Weight gain—greater than 2 pounds in 2 daysWorsening of ankle swellingSevere headacheNausea and/or vomitingCough, shortness of breath, or chest painCoughing up bloodSkin rash, or unusual bruising or bleedingConfusionLightheadedness when standingTingling in hands and feetIrregular heartbeat, extremely slow pulse, or fast pulseRedness, swelling, or pain in one or both legsBurning during urination
If you think you have an emergency, call for emergency medical services right away.
Mitral valve disease: stenosis and regurgitation. Cleveland Clinic website. Available at:
http://www.clevelandclinicmeded.com/medicalpubs/diseasemanagement/cardiology/mitral-valve-disease. Accessed August 20, 2014.
Mitral valve repair.
Society of Thoracic Surgeons website. Available at:
http://www.sts.org/patient-information/valve-repair/replacement-surgery/mitral-valve-repair. Accessed August 20, 2014.
Last reviewed September 2016 by Michael J. Fucci, DO, FACC
Please be aware that this information is provided to supplement the care provided by your physician. It is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. CALL YOUR HEALTHCARE PROVIDER IMMEDIATELY IF YOU THINK YOU MAY HAVE A MEDICAL EMERGENCY. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition.
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