The eustachian tube is a small canal that connects the middle ear to the back of the nose and upper throat. Its purpose is to equalize the air pressure in the middle ear with the pressure outside it.
Eustachian tube dysfunction (ETD) occurs when the tube fails to open during swallowing or yawning. This results in a difference between the air pressure inside and outside the middle ear.
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ETD is caused by poor function or blockage of the eustachian tube, including: Inability of the tiny hairs inside the ear to remove fluid and infectionPoor squeezing function within the eustachian tubeNarrow eustachian tube—in infantsAdenoid tissue blocking eustachian tube—in childrenSwollen nasal secretions that cause a blockageTumors—in adults
This condition is more common in children.
Factors that may increase your chance of getting ETD include:
Nasal congestion from an
or other upper respiratory infection
sinus infectionsEnvironmental allergiesChildren with large adenoidsActivities with large, rapid altitude changes, such as flying in an airplane or scuba divingPresence of obstructing tumors in the nasopharynx
Symptoms can include: Feeling of fullness or clogging in the earDiscomfort or pain in the earHearing lossRinging in the earA sensation of spinning known as vertigoSymptoms that cannot be relieved by swallowing, yawning, or chewingPain if the blockage results in an infection
You will be asked about your symptoms and medical history. A physical exam will be done. Your ears will be examined. If your case is severe, you may need to see an otolaryngologist, a doctor who specializes in ear disorders.
You may have tests done on your ears. This may include: TympanogramAudiogram
To deal with ear clogging, discomfort, or pain, you can try: Swallowing, yawning, or chewing gum to relieve the pressureClearing your ears by breathing in and then gently breathing out while holding your nostrils and mouth closedBlowing up balloons or inflation devices
If the symptoms do not go away within a few hours or are severe, your doctor may advise the following medications: Oral antihistamines if allergies are presentNasal steroids to relieve nasal congestion and swelling to enable the eustachian tube to openPain medications such as acetaminophen
ibuprofenBrief (3 or less days) use of nasal or oral decongestants
In rare cases, a
may be necessary. An incision will be made in the eardrum to allow the pressure to equalize and the fluid to drain.
To help reduce your chances of getting ETD, take the following steps: Treat allergies as advised by your doctor.Avoid flying in an airplane or going scuba diving if you have allergies or a cold.
Use decongestants or antihistamines if you have an allergy or a cold.Yawn or chew gum. Encourage swallowing by sucking on hard candy or drinking water.When taking off and landing, clear your ears by breathing in and then gently breathing out while holding your nostrils and mouth closed.Try special earplugs that slowly equalize the pressure in your ear. These earplugs can be found at drugstores and airports.
Barotrauma. American Hearing Research Foundation website. Available at:
http://american-hearing.org/disorders/barotrauma. Updated October 2012. Accessed September 24, 2014.
Eustachian tube dysfunction. McKinley Health Center, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign website. Available at:
http://www.mckinley.uiuc.edu/handouts/eustachian%5Ftube%5Fdysfunction/eustachian%5Ftube%5Fdysfunction.html. Updated March 24, 2007. Accessed September 24, 2014.
Eustachian tube dysfunction. Patient UK website. Available at:
http://www.patient.co.uk/health/Eustachian-Tube-Dysfunction.htm. Updated March 15, 2012. Accessed September 24, 2014.
General information about nasopharyngeal cancer. National Cancer Institute website. Available at:
Updated December 20, 2013. Accessed September 24, 2014.
Last reviewed August 2015 by Michael Woods, MD
Please be aware that this information is provided to supplement the care provided by your physician. It is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. CALL YOUR HEALTHCARE PROVIDER IMMEDIATELY IF YOU THINK YOU MAY HAVE A MEDICAL EMERGENCY. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition.
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