A hammer toe is a toe that tends to remain bent at the middle joint in a claw-like position. There are 2 types of hammer toe: Flexible hammer toe—can be straightened by handRigid hammer toe—cannot be pulled straight and can be extremely painful. The position of the toe can also lead to corns or calluses. These may also be painful.
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Hammer toe may be
present at birth
or develop later in life due to tendons that have tightened, causing the toe's joints to curl downward.
Occasionally, all toes may be bent. This may be due to problems with the peripheral nerves or the spinal cord.
Factors that increase your chance of getting hammer toe include: Family history of hammer toeArthritisFoot and ankle abnormalitiesFrequent use of the inappropriate footwear:
Shoes that don't fit properly, for either an adult or childHigh heelsNarrow-toed shoesThe foot having a high archMuscle weakness in the footNerve damage in the footInjury to a toe
If you have any of these symptoms, do not assume it is due to hammer toe. Talk to your doctor about symptoms such as: A toe that curls downCorns on the top of a toeCalluses on the sole of the foot or bottom of the toePain in the middle joint of a toeDiscomfort on the top of a toeDifficulty finding any shoes that fit comfortablyCramping in a toe, and sometimes also the foot and legDifficult or painful motion of a toe jointPain in the ball of the foot or at the base of a toe
You will be asked about your symptoms and medical history. A physical exam of the toe will be done. Your doctor can diagnose hammer toe by its appearance.
Talk with your doctor about the best treatment plan for you. Treatment options include the following:
The toe will need time to heal. This may include: Splinting the affected toeSwitching to properly sized footwear with roomy toe boxesSplints, straps, cushions, or corn pads to relieve symptoms
Severe cases require an operation to straighten the joint: Tendons may be cut or transferredThe middle joint of the toe may be fused togetherPart of the toe or joint may be removed
To help reduce your chances of getting hammer toe, take the following steps: Avoid wearing poorly fitting or narrow-toed shoes.Avoid heels higher than 2 inches.Check your child’s shoe size often.
Hammer toe. American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons website. Available at:
http://orthoinfo.aaos.org/topic.cfm?topic=A00160. Updated September 2012. Accessed
March 2, 2015.
Hammertoe. Foot Health Facts—American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons website. Available at:
http://www.foothealthfacts.org/footankleinfo/hammertoes.htm. Accessed March 2, 2015.
Hammer toe. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at:
http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated May 25, 2010. Accessed
March 2, 2015.
Last reviewed March 2015 by Michael Woods, MD
Please be aware that this information is provided to supplement the care provided by your physician. It is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. CALL YOUR HEALTHCARE PROVIDER IMMEDIATELY IF YOU THINK YOU MAY HAVE A MEDICAL EMERGENCY. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition.
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